Carbohydrates are formed in plants as a result of photosynthesis. Essentially, this is conserved solar energy. The main function that carbohydrates perform in the human body is to provide it with energy. There are simple and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars, or monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, ribose, deoxyribose, and galactose, while complex sugars, or disaccharides, include maltose, lactose, and sucrose, which is a combination of glucose and fructose, better known as ordinary sugar. Compared to honey, sucrose, or ordinary sugar, cannot be directly utilized by the human body. Therefore, it must be broken down into glucose and fructose, additionally consuming enzymes and energy. Maltose (two connected fructose molecules), found in, for example, malted grains, is also considered a complex sugar. Another is lactose, found in dairy products. It is the only carbohydrate that requires a special enzyme, lactase, for its breakdown. If this enzyme is absent in the intestinal tract, lactose intolerance occurs.

Apart from simple sugars, there are also complex or polysaccharides: digestible ones include starch and glycogen, while indigestible ones include the fiber cellulose. These are so-called slow carbohydrates (glycemic index less than 70), which, in comparison to fast ones, provide energy gradually and evenly. Starch is the main source of carbohydrates, found in potatoes, grains, vegetables, fruits. Except for potatoes (prepared without skin), these are slow carbohydrates, which should form the basis of our dietary pyramid. Plant fibers, also considered polysaccharides, are not directly utilized in the body but serve as a food source for beneficial bacteria living in the intestines. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli produce many valuable nutrients.


The Glycemic Index
The glycemic index is a relative indicator of the impact of carbohydrates present in food products on changes in blood glucose levels. It is measured on a scale from 1 to 100, using pure glucose as a reference, calculated to have an impact of 100 on the body. The measurement is taken 2 hours after eating. The highest glycemic index is found in honey with a high glucose proportion, such as that obtained from rapeseed flowers, but low in acacia flower honey, due to its high fructose content, which also prevents it from crystallizing.

The glycemic index depends on the amount of fiber in the product. The more fiber a product contains and the less simple sugar it has, the lower its glycemic index, and vice versa. For example, raw potatoes contain very little simple sugar, so their glycemic index is low, but boiling or baking, which is even less desirable, converts starch into simple sugars, drastically increasing the glycemic index.

With bread, especially white bread, the situation is similar, its glycemic index even higher than sugar, plus it also contains phytic acid, which depletes the body's zinc reserves.


Honey is a Complex Carbohydrate
Honey, too, falls under complex carbohydrates. Its main component, fructose, is absorbed in the intestines and in the liver transforms into glycogen (an energy reserve for one day, used when a person does not consume food). If the consumed energy is not expended, it converts into a long-term storage form - fats. Fructose is twice as sweet as glucose and one and a half times sweeter than ordinary sugar. It is absorbed more slowly in the gastrointestinal tract than glucose. Diabetic patients are characterized by elevated glucose levels in the blood, due to a lack of insulin that can transport it into cells. Fructose does not require insulin. Honey contains chromium, which promotes insulin production. This additional factor is not insignificant for diabetics, who can consume honey, preferably avoiding honey varieties with a high glucose content, such as those from cruciferous plant flowers, like turnips and rapeseed.

Honey is rich in enzymes, so it metabolizes very well in the body. The more enzymes, the higher the diastase number, the more valuable the honey. Upon reaching the stomach, enzymes begin their work, helping to digest other foods, thus honey combines very well with other products. However, heating honey from +43°C onwards, enzymes start to degrade. Although there are some types of enzymes that can temporarily withstand higher temperatures up to +60°C, this is approaching complete and irreversible protein denaturation, where life is not possible. Heating honey to a temperature higher than the human body gradually transforms it into a different product.

Scientists have discovered that honey's composition resembles that of human blood plasma. It contains essential microelements in optimal amounts and proportions. These are more than 90 chemical compounds necessary for maintaining health. Vitamins B2, B6, E, C, folic acid, niacin, iron, chromium, magnesium, amino acids, phytoncides, etc. Honey contains a rare microelement, lithium, which can be obtained from unboiled water, tomatoes. Without lithium, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), an important source of energy for the body, cannot be synthesized.

Honey has an acidic internal environment pH= 3.0 – 5.0. When stored, it absorbs moisture, releasing hydrogen peroxide, a very strong antiseptic, ensuring very long storage.

Honey is an absolutely sterile, naturally formed structure. Examining it under a dark-field microscope at more than 1000 times magnification, you will not see any microbes, bacteria, or fungi. The main components of honey create a neutral environment (neither acidic nor alkaline), but the acids contained in honey (oxalic acid, malic acid, and others) create an acidic environment, further enhancing honey's antibacterial properties. Thanks to the acidic environment, the movement of nutrient molecules occurs according to the pH gradient, that is, from an acidic environment to an alkaline one. This means that fructose and glucose begin to be absorbed in the mouth and enter the bloodstream. However, when organic acids reach the gastrointestinal tract, a negatively charged hydroxyl group (OH-) splits off, and they dissociate not as acids but as bases or alkalis, creating a favorable environment in the body.

Any organic compounds in honey are stored almost indefinitely. There is a known case where a vessel of honey was found in an ancient burial site, containing a barley grain, approximately 2500 years old.


Honey and Detoxification
Transitioning, for example, to raw eating, a person receives less energy than when consuming thermally processed products. Beginners still do not fully utilize fresh products, so they often experience weakness, dizziness. The need for detoxification is inherent in every person, but any detoxification program is energy-intensive. The body accumulates this necessary energy over a longer period and, until enough has been accumulated, the detoxification process does not start. In this case, honey is a good source of missing energy. There are situations when a person eats even a small amount of honey, the body receives the necessary energy, and the organism begins to detoxify. After some time, detoxification symptoms appear, which are considered an allergic reaction. We are accustomed to calling any detoxification a disease. There have even been instances where people say - I ate honey and got sick, if I hadn't eaten, I would be healthy. In fact, for the body, this is a healthy process. A less healthy person differs from a more healthy one only in that the healthy one needs to eat more honey for the detoxification process to start. Knowing this amount, in practice, each person can adjust the amount of honey that triggers this detoxification process. In this way, detoxification can be accelerated and made more effective, only each subsequent time more and more will have to be eaten, because the detoxification processes will be deeper and more energy-intensive.

Honey can be mixed with almost all products, regardless it assimilates well. The only restriction is appetite and well-being. Quality honey does not contain toxins, only those previously entered the body are excreted.


Gallstones and Honey
Bile participates in fat metabolism processes and acts as an emulsifier. The cause of gallstones can be altered bile composition, due to changed cholesterol amount and quality, for example, related to the presence of giardia (a parasitic protozoan organism), animal-derived cholesterol that enters the body through animal-derived fats, consumption of glue-like products (cheeses, cottage cheese, white bread). Acting on liver function, the quality of the produced bile deteriorates, it becomes thicker and gallstones form. As a second cause of gallstone formation, stress and sedentary lifestyle could be mentioned, leading to gallbladder contraction disorders and bile duct compression, associated with abdominal muscle spasms. As a result, bile stagnates and stones form.

Modern medicine uses various methods to eliminate gallstones. Unfortunately, they cause side effects. The most well-known are laparoscopic surgeries, crushing with ultrasound (resonance effect on surrounding tissues and cells), various medications, the active ingredient of which is ursodeoxycholic acid (dissolves only sand and small stones). In modern medicine, age is considered the reason for the formation of gallstones, which is actually the term for the development of the disease, but before that, conditions for its occurrence were created. Heredity is also mentioned, although this factor plays a minor role, as essentially inherited are lifestyle family traditions. Female hormones should also not be blamed if a person consumes an adequate diet, as intended by nature.

Ecomedicine offers the following solution. Of course, first, the causes must be eliminated, and then action can be taken. In the morning after waking up, heat two glasses of unboiled water to +30° - +40°C, take two teaspoons of honey, preferably with a high diastase number, slightly suck on it and drink it with water, preferably negatively charged. Upon reaching the stomach, the stomach sphincter opens, and water enters the duodenum. There are bile ducts there. Honey is an active substance that tends to stick, more precisely, to adhere to other inert formations, similar to a magnet. Since honey crystals tend to absorb water to dissolve, they dissolve along with the substance they have adhered to. Thus, micron by micron, gallstones also dissolve. This process can last up to half a year. It can be accelerated with green smoothies or black radish juice. To reduce smooth muscle spasms, which relax smooth musculature in the gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts, thereby not creating stagnation that promotes inflammation, massage and special exercises can be performed, but only under the supervision of a specialist.


Negative Aspects of Honey Consumption
As a beekeeper, for economic reasons, it would not be wise to discuss the negative aspects of my produced product, but, as I critically view other food producers, I believe in being completely honest.

Although honey is one of the best possible sweets, especially if it were the only sweet consumed in the diet, then there would be no problems, only benefits, as it was for our ancestors. Unfortunately, this is no longer the case.

The situation today has changed drastically, the overall consumption of sugars has increased several tens of times. The result is that pre-diabetic conditions and diabetes affect 95% of the population with the dramatic consequences we see and hear at every turn. Each subsequent generation is weaker than the previous one. There is not a day in the mass media when they do not talk about medicine and health problems.

In such a situation, there is only one way out – switching to a keto diet, that is, obtaining energy from fats, not glucose. Unfortunately, ketolysis and glycolysis do not work simultaneously. For ketolysis to work, the absolute sugar consumption (including fruits), per day must not exceed 25-30g (more detailed information on the keto diet in the section 'Excess Weight'). Otherwise, it is impossible to exit from a pre-diabetic state.


Is it Recommended to Consume Honey with Other Food Products?
Yes and no. If, for example, we eat honey with bread (both of these products are carbohydrates), honey with its enzymes will help assimilate the thermally processed product, that is, bread, which no longer contains living enzymes, thereby relieving the pancreas. This also applies to other thermally processed and non-living products. If honey is consumed with proteins, for example, nuts, it will not be a good combination, as carbohydrates with proteins cause fermentation. It is much better to eat such products separately. Also, it is not advisable to mix honey with berries, as we will not get vitamin C - since the formulas of sugar and vitamin C are almost identical, it means that the body processes it as sugar, but the deficiency of this vitamin is very relevant for modern people. Therefore, berries and nuts should be consumed separately.

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For thousands of years, humanity has used honey in food, medicine, and even in the sauna, witnessing its beneficial effects on the human body. Rarely is there a product that has been tested over time as much as honey. Its main components are fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (grape sugar). There is also a small amount of sucrose (sugar beet or sugarcane sugar) and maltose (malt sugar). Water makes up about 20% of the total composition. Plant pollen that enters the nectar as bees collect it gives honey its various colors and aromas. Depending on the type of honey, the proportion of glucose and fructose changes. For example, rapeseed honey has a strong predominance of glucose, while acacia honey has more fructose.

Bees can obtain honey from the nectar of flowering plants, leaf exudate, and excretions of plant insects. It is a well-known fact that the best honey is that which is provided by the bee, honey in the making of which man has not interfered. The laws of natural survival are harsh. Shoddy work and survival do not go hand in hand. Therefore, bees strictly follow this. Problems begin when humans intervene.


Heating is done to liquefy crystallized honey for easier bottling and to give it an 'attractive' appearance. Such a product is usually chosen by a buyer who knows little about honey for medicinal purposes. Honey conducts heat poorly, so when heating, it must be stirred carefully, which is technically difficult due to crystallization. This process is significantly facilitated by increasing the temperature, so some countries have legal limits for selling liquid, i.e., non-crystallized honey in winter.

  +35°C - biologically active volatile substances start to disappear.

  +40°C - at this point, volatile antimicrobial substances begin to degrade.

  +45°C - one of the main enzymes, invertase, which breaks down sucrose into fructose and glucose, starts to degrade. Other enzymes begin to degrade as well.

  +47°C - oxymethylfurfural starts to form, which is a carcinogenic substance, thus acting as an oncogenic factor. This should be taken into account when using honey in cooking.

  +50°C - the main indicator of honey's naturalness, diastase, or amylase (an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates), is lost.

  +63°C - heating at this temperature for half an hour can prevent fermentation.

  +65°C - the minerals in honey change from organic or colloidal form to inorganic (insoluble in water) and cannot be utilized by the human body.

Heating honey makes it darker, but high-temperature heating, as well as repeated overheating, creates the harmful substance oxymethylfurfural, which is detected by performing honey analysis in a laboratory. Let's not distort the natural product with heating. It is a weak consolation that there are hundreds of times more carcinogenic substances in cola and coffee.


Diastase Number
This is the main indicator of naturalness, measured in Gothe units. It can range from 0 to 40 and in rare cases even more. It essentially represents the amount of enzymes added by bees to the nectar they have collected, repeatedly ingested and regurgitated, while also reducing the water content. Thus, the nectar is processed into honey. Heating honey significantly reduces this number. Prolonged storage also decreases it. There is a tendency for honey collected in the spring to have a slightly lower diastase number than that collected in the summer. However, if the honey has been stored in the hive over winter with the bees, the diastase number can increase. Honey collected during a high yield period may have a slightly lower number because the bees do not add as many enzymes as during a low yield period. According to the standard adopted in Latvia, the diastase number for natural honey must not be below 8.


Filtration is carried out to obtain a crystal-clear appearance and temporarily prevent crystallization. Passing honey through fine filters reduces the pollen content, thereby also its value. Honey becomes slightly lighter. In Latvia, this is practiced very rarely. Usually, such honey comes from abroad. However, technology has advanced to the point where, for example, now with ultra-fine filters, honey is completely cleared of pollen, the main component that makes honey valuable. This is one of the explanations why such 'honey' is so cheap. There would be nothing to object to such a product if only traders did not use the word honey.

Completely clearing honey with ultra-fine filters of pollen presents another cunning trap for consumers. Currently, monofloral honey (from one type of plant flower) is in fashion worldwide, which is less valuable than mixed flower honey. Since it is very difficult to collect pure monofloral honey (bees fly within a 3 km radius, and most plants bloom for only a few days), it is simpler for beekeepers to collect pollen from a certain plant. They dry it to protect it from molding. Then it is finely ground and added to the filtered honey. In this way, for example, apple blossom, peony, raspberry flower honey, etc., can be obtained. And analyses will show that the name of the honey is indeed correct. It remains only to add the corresponding flavorings to fully convince the buyer.

Unfortunately, during the drying process and long-term exposure to air, oxidation occurs, and the pollen loses a significant part of its value compared to if it had originally been in the honey. This means that adding such pollen to filtered honey significantly reduces its value.


Artificial Honey
The bodies of modern people, especially urban dwellers, are often so polluted that biologically very active natural honey triggers an immediate detoxification process, manifested as skin rashes, nausea, etc. Therefore, artificial honey is offered. Crushed pollen is added to sugar syrup. The most interesting thing is that food production technologies have developed to the point that classical honey analyses cannot determine that it is not real honey. Both the producer, who can outcompete beekeepers with price, and consumers, who do not have allergic reactions to such a product, benefit. Although the 'quality' of artificial honey approaches that it can hardly be distinguished from real honey by classical analyses,
there are still some signs that might raise suspicions:
   �   When natural honey is placed in water at +18°C, it sinks and sticks to the bottom of the container, but artificial dissolves faster and more unevenly.

   �   Artificial honey is easier to pour from one container to another, while real honey is thick enough that pouring is more restrained.

   �   Real honey is not as sticky to the fingers as artificial, which more resembles glue.

   �   Mixing industrially produced artificial honey with natural honey creates a mottled, difficult-to-mix mass, because the spatial isomerism of artificial honey is rotated to the right side (measured by the plane of polarization of light), while natural honey is to the left.

   �   When natural honey is spread on bread and slightly warmed, it becomes noticeably thicker, whereas artificial honey soaks into the bread, leaving almost just a damp spot.

In natural honey, especially from small beekeepers, upon closer observation, one can see tiny particles of bee bread and wax, which is harmless, whereas artificial honey is perfectly clean.


Honey ferments if its water content exceeds 20%. The most suitable temperature for fermentation is from +10°C to +20°C, but below +5°C, fermentation stops. Yeasts in honey break down sugars, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide, which escapes in the form of bubbles. Since honey is hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air), it is important to always store it in hermetically sealed containers.

Reducing the water content in honey, measured in percentages, is an important factor but not the only one that ensures that honey will not ferment. The diversity of plants in the vicinity of the bee colony is important. The greater the diversity of flowers, the greater the likelihood that some of the plant nectars will have an increased presence of yeast fungi, as there are about 300 different yeasts in nature. When storing honey samples under identical conditions (room temperature), it happens that signs of fermentation are present in a sample with 18%, but the one with over 21% water has remained perfect. The simplest and safest solution to the honey fermentation problem is to store it at temperatures from 0°C to +10°C.


With a few exceptions, honey in Latvia usually crystallizes approximately 2 months after it is extracted from the cells. Crystallization, or as people say, sugarcoating, is one of the signs that honey is quality and real. In some countries, the sale of liquid honey during the winter period is even legally restricted. Crystallization should be uniform. Layering of honey indicates that it is of poor quality. If honey has a high percentage of fructose, crystallization may almost not occur, for example, in honey collected from acacia flowers. Honey from leaf exudate also crystallizes very weakly.


The consistency of honey can range from coarsely grained to creamy or butter-like, depending on the diversity of flowers and crystallization conditions. Creamy honey, which many users like, can also be artificially produced by slightly heating, adding a bit of creamy honey as a 'starter', and periodically stirring slowly to disrupt the formation of large crystals. This process can take several days. The only downside to such honey is additional contact with air during stirring.


From Sugar Syrup
Although paying the price of honey for sugar syrup is economically disadvantageous, honey obtained from sugar is more valuable than sugar because sucrose is converted into simple sugars - glucose and fructose - with the help of invertase.The human body no longer has to exert effort. Such 'honey' crystallizes poorly and does not ferment, has a faint aroma and light color, unless, for example, a linden flower tea decoction is added when preparing the syrup for feeding. There are almost no bee-produced enzymes and hormones in sugar syrup honey. There are no proteins, vitamins, and organic acids. From 1 kg of sugar, one can obtain 1 kg of such 'honey'.

Weather and bee forage do not affect the production of such 'honey'. Usually, beekeepers feed bees with sugar syrup or invert sugar (industrially prepared syrup) when wintering the bees and also to stimulate the colonies during periods of no yield. The presence of sugar syrup in honey is determined under a microscope by examining the presence of sugar beet or sugarcane cells. It is impossible to predict what the winter will be like and what the feed consumption will be in the fall. However, if fall feeding after honey extraction is done in the right amount, the presence of sugar syrup in honey the next season approaches zero, as the bees have already used it up during the winter.

With the narrowing price difference between sugar and honey and the depletion of sugar stocks produced in Latvia, the production of sugar syrup honey has become not a very profitable occupation, but the currently available sugar in stores is even dangerous for bees.


Without Sugar Syrup
Just as growing vegetables using biological methods results in a smaller yield, so too in beekeeping, refraining from using sugar leads to a loss in honey quantity. It is difficult to compete with prices. High-yield bee breeds, which come from abroad and with which the majority of beekeepers in Latvia work, poorly tolerate the presence of leaf exudate honey in winter feed. There is a serious risk of bees not surviving the winter. Incidentally, leaf exudate honey is very beneficial for humans. Moreover, winter feed must not contain rapeseed and buckwheat honey. Therefore, to fully refrain from using sugar, these factors must be taken into account. In addition, additional breeding work must be carried out in the apiary, breeding bee queens every year from the most resistant colonies. When feeding with sugar syrup, however, it must be considered that the bees have not completely consumed it and have distributed it throughout the hive. If bees are not specifically fed to increase the honey yield, this part is quite small and not significant. Completely refraining from using sugar syrup, honey is exactly as nature provides it.


Imported and Local
In Latvia, the honey yield period lasts only about 3 months. During the rest of the time, bees consume the stored honey. In the south, from where cheap honey is imported to Latvia, bees have a yield almost all year round. Therefore, it is difficult to compete with price. But it is different with quality. Since the air temperature is higher in the south, nectar is released much more rapidly from flowering plants, and as a result, there are significantly fewer minerals. Therefore, honey obtained in Latvia is approximately 10-15 times more biologically active than its southern competitors. The farther north, the more valuable the honey, because plants bloom over a longer period and absorb more minerals.

Just as plants, local beekeeping products are best for humans, as over time the human body has adapted to them. The superiority of local honey is also evidenced by a study conducted by the National Diagnostic Center (NDC) at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture. The conclusion is that Latvian apples currently outperform foreign competitors in all parameters. The conclusions about other studied products are not unequivocal.


Honey from various flowers
This type of honey, compared to single flower or monofloral, has a wider spectrum of medicinal properties. It forms many and various color, taste, and aroma compositions. Since bees fly within a 3 km radius, it is practically impossible to obtain pure monofloral honey in Latvia. If only with a larger proportion of a certain flower. Each area where bees are placed has its own distinct plant diversity, especially the difference in honey is noticeable if nectar plants are sown nearby, or for example, at the end of summer, the bee pasture is placed in a heather field. I have observed that, for example, during linden blossom time, one pasture is full of bees, but the other is completely quiet. It turns out, bees give preference to those flowers that at that moment can give the best yield. Even in adjacent hives, the honey can differ. Therefore, taking all this into account, when choosing honey for oneself, the buyer should compare as many offers as possible to choose the most suitable one and not refuse honey altogether.


Extracted Honey
The process of obtaining tea can briefly be outlined as follows - collecting plants or their flowers, drying, fermenting, and grinding. By putting them in hot water, we make tea. The preparation of extracted honey is similar, for example, specially prepared linden flowers, peppermint, mallow, or flowers or leaves of another plant are added to honey, which is heated to +35°C, thoroughly mixed, and after a couple of hours filtered. In this way, honey with a very strong flavor and aroma of a particular plant can be obtained. The medicinal properties of extracted honey weaken insignificantly, or it is possible that some even intensify. In this way, honey can be given interesting flavors, aromas, and color compositions.


For quality honey, stored correctly, this problem is not relevant. Misunderstandings might arise in cases where, when bottling, honey from different extraction batches with different crystallization start times is poured into one container without mixing. The sign of this is a very faint, diffused boundary between the liquid and crystallized honey. After complete crystallization in this case, the color tone might slightly differ. Otherwise, it is with improperly stored and poor-quality honey. The boundaries are very contrasting and most often located at the bottom or top of the container. This is a characteristic sign of improperly stored, poor-quality honey and should be paid attention to when purchasing honey.


When nectar is just brought into the hive, it has a very high water content, about 60%, so bees perform drying by ventilating the hive, thus reducing the water content to 20%. At the same time, enzymes are added to the nectar. This process, called maturation, depending on the weather, lasts about 2 weeks. The cells filled to the edges are sealed by the bees. The sealings are a guarantee that the honey has matured. For long-term storage, the safest honey is that taken out at the end of summer when the yield has ended, and the bees have finished its maturation. To obtain a larger yield, large producers practice extracting honey from the hive when it still has a high moisture content, i.e., it is not matured. The required moisture content is achieved with special moisture-absorbing devices. This is done to free the bees from this work and to have them bring in more nectar. Also, because, for example, rapeseed flower honey crystallizes very quickly, and it is necessary to manage to extract it from the cells. Such artificially dried honey will be of lower value because it has much fewer added bee enzymes (diastase number) and drying involved greater exposure to air.


Honey in the Comb
Honey stored in sealed cells has the highest quality indicators because it has not come into contact with air. Honey in the cells does not crystallize quickly because it has not mixed with crystallizing honey. The downside might be not very convenient use, as well as eating it with wax. When storing honey in the comb, however, it must be remembered that even sealed cells do not fully protect from the moisture in the air. Therefore, honey in the comb should be stored in a dry place or in hermetically sealed containers.


Overly long-stored or low-quality honey is warmed and fed to bees, similar to sugar syrup. It acquires an almost fresh honey appearance. If this is done during the yield period, moreover, it mixes with fresh nectar. Thus, with the help of bees, the 'refreshing' of honey is carried out. There have even been heard stories about bee smugglers. To get cheap, low-quality honey across the state border, feeding stations are placed on one side of the border, but the hives are located on the other side. And here, even the most modern border guard equipment is powerless. The presence of honey uncharacteristic of Latvia is determined in the laboratory by performing botanical analysis. Quality is checked by determining the diastase number.


There is a mistaken belief that quality local honey causes allergies. Honey triggers a detoxification process, which is mistakenly called an allergy. Examining honey under a dark-field microscope at a very high magnification, you will not see any bacteria, fungi, or microbes. In other products, there are many.


It is best to eat honey separately so that it fully mixes with saliva, in this way you will consume exactly as much as your body needs at that moment. By keeping this wonderful natural product in your mouth, it begins to be absorbed and enter the bloodstream.


As archaeological excavations have shown, honey, when stored properly, even after thousands of years, can be safely identified as having been honey. Thanks to its antiseptic properties, bacteria and fungi do not proliferate in honey. However, its strong hygroscopic properties must be considered, so honey must not be kept in an open container to prevent it from absorbing moisture and odors from the air. It is best stored at a steady temperature of 0°C to +10°C, in a dark place. Since honey contains about 20% water, storing it at sub-zero temperatures is not ideal, as the quality of amino acids and vitamins may slightly decrease.